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Deep-learning Based Automated Detection Algorithm for Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis on Chest Radiographs: Diagnostic Performance in Systematic Screening of Asymptomatic Individuals

Jong Hyuk Lee et al. — European Radiology (2020)

Objectives



Performance of deep learning–based automated detection (DLAD) algorithms in systematic screening for active pulmonary tuberculosis is unknown. We aimed to validate DLAD algorithm for detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis and any radiologically identifiable relevant abnormality on chest radiographs (CRs) in this setting.








Methods



We performed out-of-sample testing of a pre-trained DLAD algorithm, using CRs from 19.686 asymptomatic individuals (ages, 21.3 ± 1.9 years) as part of systematic screening for tuberculosis between January 2013 and July 2018. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for diagnosis of tuberculosis and any relevant abnormalities were measured. Accuracy measures including sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated at pre-defined operating thresholds (high sensitivity threshold, 0.16; high specificity threshold, 0.46).








Results



All five CRs from four individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis were correctly classified as having abnormal findings by DLAD with specificities of 0.959 and 0.997, PPVs of 0.006 and 0.068, and NPVs of both 1.000 at high sensitivity and high specificity thresholds, respectively. With high specificity thresholds, DLAD showed comparable diagnostic measures with the pooled radiologists (p values > 0.05). For the radiologically identifiable relevant abnormality (n = 28), DLAD showed an AUC value of 0.967 (95% confidence interval, 0.938–0.996) with sensitivities of 0.821 and 0.679, specificities of 0.960 and 0.997, PPVs of 0.028 and 0.257, and NPVs of both 0.999 at high sensitivity and high specificity thresholds, respectively.








Conclusions



In systematic screening for tuberculosis in a low-prevalence setting, DLAD algorithm demonstrated excellent diagnostic performance, comparable with the radiologists in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis.


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AUTHORS

Jong Hyuk Lee, Sunggyun Park, Eui Jin Hwang, Jin Mo Goo, Woo Young Lee, Sangho Lee, Hyungjin Kim, Jason R. Andrews & Chang Min Park

PUBLISHED
European Radiology (2020)

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