Background Accurate detection of pneumothorax on chest radiographs, the most common complication of percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsies (PTNBs), is not always easy in practice. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system may help detect pneumothorax. Purpose To investigate whether a deep learning-based CAD system can improve detection performance for pneumothorax on chest radiographs after PTNB in clinical practice. Materials and Methods A CAD system for post-PTNB pneumothorax detection on chest radiographs was implemented in an institution in February 2020. This retrospective cohort study consecutively included chest radiographs interpreted with CAD assistance (CAD-applied group; February 2020 to November 2020) and those interpreted before implementation (non-CAD group; January 2018 to January 2020). The reference standard was defined by consensus reading by two radiologists. The diagnostic accuracy for pneumothorax was compared between the two groups using generalized estimating equations. Matching was performed according to whether the radiograph reader and PTNB operator were the same using the greedy method. Results A total of 676 radiographs from 655 patients (mean age: 67 years ± 11; 390 men) in the CAD-applied group and 676 radiographs from 664 patients (mean age: 66 years ± 12; 400 men) in the non-CAD group were included. The incidence of pneumothorax was 18.2% (123 of 676 radiographs) in the CAD-applied group and 22.5% (152 of 676 radiographs) in the non-CAD group (P = .05). The CAD-applied group showed higher sensitivity (85.4% vs 67.1%), negative predictive value (96.8% vs 91.3%), and accuracy (96.8% vs 92.3%) than the non-CAD group (all P < .001). The sensitivity for a small amount of pneumothorax improved in the CAD-applied group (pneumothorax of <10%: 74.5% vs 51.4%, P = .009; pneumothorax of 10%-15%: 92.7% vs 70.2%, P = .008). Among patients with pneumothorax, 34 of 655 (5.0%) in the non-CAD group and 16 of 664 (2.4%) in the CAD-applied group (P = .009) required subsequent drainage catheter insertion. Conclusion A deep learning-based computer-aided detection system improved the detection performance for pneumothorax on chest radiographs after lung biopsy. © RSNA, 2022 See also the editorial by Schiebler and Hartung in this issue.
Wonju Hong 1, Eui Jin Hwang 1, Jong Hyuk Lee 1, Jongsoo Park 1, Jin Mo Goo 1, Chang Min Park 1
1From the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea (W.H., E.J.H., J.H.L., J.P., J.M.G., C.M.P.); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Korea (E.J.H., J.M.G., C.M.P.); and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea (J.M.G., C.M.P.).