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Evaluation of a deep learning-based computer-aided detection algorithm on chest radiographs : Case–control study

Choi, Soo Yun MS et al. — Medicine (2021)


Along with recent developments in deep learning techniques, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been growing rapidly in the medical imaging field. In this work, we evaluate the deep learning-based CAD algorithm (DCAD) for detecting and localizing 3 major thoracic abnormalities visible on chest radiographs (CR) and to compare the performance of physicians with and without the assistance of the algorithm. A subset of 244 subjects (60% abnormal CRs) was evaluated. Abnormal findings included mass/nodules (55%), consolidation (21%), and pneumothorax (24%). Observer performance tests were conducted to assess whether the performance of physicians could be enhanced with the algorithm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and the area under the jackknife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) were measured to evaluate the performance of the algorithm and physicians in image classification and lesion detection, respectively. The AUCs for nodule/mass, consolidation, and pneumothorax were 0.9883, 1.000, and 0.9997, respectively. For the image classification, the overall AUC of the pooled physicians was 0.8679 without DCAD and 0.9112 with DCAD. Regarding lesion detection, the pooled observers exhibited a weighted JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) of 0.8426 without DCAD and 0.9112 with DCAD. DCAD for CRs could enhance physicians’ performance in the detection of 3 major thoracic abnormalities.

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Choi, Soo Yun MSa; Park, Sunggyun PhDb; Kim, Minchul MSb; Park, Jongchan MEb; Choi, Ye Ra MDc; Jin, Kwang Nam MDa,c,∗

aCollege of Medicine, Seoul National University

bLunit Incorporated

cDepartment of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government, Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Medicine (2021)

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